Blue, the color of heaven, has captivated humanity for centuries. In ancient times, this precious hue symbolized the boundless expanses of the sea and sky, representing a realm equal to that of the gods. However, the elusive nature of blue posed a challenge to those seeking to capture it from the natural world. This manuscript explores the historical pursuit of blue pigments, particularly lajvard and its counterparts, and how they shaped art, trade, and technology in ancient civilizations.
In the ancient world, the people of Mesopotamia discovered a region where the heavens seemed to melt into the earth, staining the mountains with vivid blue hues. This mystical blue pigment, known as lajvard, adorned the thrones of local kings, the masks of Pharaoh Tutankhamun, the seals of Assyria, and the guardian bull statues of Ur’s tombs. The term “lajvard” is derived from the Persian language, signifying both “heaven” and “sky.”
The primary source of lajvard was the Sar-e-Sang mine in Badakhshan, Afghanistan, a location known for its intense blue color. Another source was found in Qamsar, near Kashan, Iran, producing a cheaper variant known as lajvard-e-Kashi. Lajvard became a valuable trade commodity, reaching ports and markets from Egypt to ancient Rome.
The enchanting blue of Lajvard from Badakhshan was the result of the meeting between hot magma breakthroughs and limestone belts weaving through the Himalayas. This geological phenomenon, akin to the process that forms marble, is exceptionally rare, with only two other locations worldwide suitable for mining—Lake Baikal in Siberia and the Andes Mountains in Chile. Lajvard, better known today as lapis lazuli, stood as a testament to the earth’s artistic alchemy.
In contrast, Lajvard-e-Kashi from Iran was not lapis lazuli but a distinct cobalt ore. Its natural form resembled silver grains, revealing its blue hue only through processing. While cobalt mines were more abundant than lapis lazuli, they remained rare compared to other pigments, making blue pigments highly prized in the ancient world.
Lapis lazuli, particularly sought after by European artists and craftsmen, maintained its popularity from ancient Rome through the Renaissance. The renowned ultramarine blue, derived from lapis lazuli, was reserved for sacred and grand subjects in paintings. Artists like Michelangelo invested significantly in lapis lazuli to paint masterpieces like The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel.
As the popularity of lapis lazuli persisted, it faced challenges due to its vulnerability to heat and unsuitability for ceramics. Enter blue kobalt, which thrives in high-temperature environments. This made it a preferred pigment for creating ceramics, tiles, and glass, as seen in the intricate geometric patterns of Iranian kashi tiles, particularly in Samarkand, Uzbekistan.
Chinese porcelain, synonymous with blue and white ceramics, gained immense popularity during the Yuan Dynasty. Kobalt from Kashan played a crucial role in the production and trade of Chinese porcelain, reaching far-flung regions, including the Malay Peninsula. European imitations, like Dutch Delftware, successfully emulated Chinese styles with their own touch, using a newly discovered blue pigment—smalt.
The accidental discovery of Prussian blue in 1706 marked a turning point in the history of blue pigments. This synthetic pigment, more affordable and competitive than its predecessors, quickly dominated European and global markets. Artists like Vincent van Gogh embraced Prussian blue in iconic works, and it became a staple in Japanese art as well.
While Prussian blue found success in art, it also played a dark role in history. When combined with sulfuric acid, it produced a deadly gas—hydrogen cyanide. This unintentional discovery led to the infamous substance used in executions and, eventually, the creation of the first industrial photocopy method, the blueprint.
With the rise of synthetic pigments, traditional blue pigments faced a decline. Lapis lazuli mines struggled, and the Lajvardi family, claiming ownership of the Qamsar kobalt mine, lamented the loss of their centuries-old wealth. Despite this, both lapis lazuli and kobalt found new roles in the modern world, with kobalt becoming a crucial component in lithium-ion batteries and lapis lazuli gaining infamy as a conflict mineral funding group like the Taliban.
The journey through ancient blue pigments reveals a captivating history of art, trade, and technology. From the revered Lajvard to the accidental discovery of Prussian blue, each pigment reflects the cultural, economic, and technological developments of its time. The legacy of these pigments continues, intertwining with the fabric of human history and leaving an indelible mark on the pursuit of the elusive color of heaven—blue.